his image taken with the Cassini radar instrument shows two craters on Titan: the crater Sinlap (left), which is a relatively ‘fresh’ crater, with a depth-to-diameter ratio close to what we see on Ganymede, and Soi (right), an extremely degraded crater, with a very small depth compared to similar craters on Ganymede. These craters are both about 80 km (almost 50 miles) in diameter. The Sinlap image was taken on Feb. 15, 2005. The Soi image is a mosaic of two images from May 21, 2009 and July 22, 2006. Credit: Catherine Neish/NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/GSFC

Titan Gets a Dune “Makeover”


Titan’s siblings must be jealous. While most of Saturn’s moons display their ancient faces pockmarked by thousands of craters, Titan – Saturn’s largest moon – may look much younger than it really is because its craters are getting erased. Dunes of exotic, hydrocarbon sand are slowly but steadily filling in its craters, according to new research using observations from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft.

“Most of the Saturnian satellites – Titan’s siblings – have thousands and thousands of craters on their surface. So far on Titan, of the 50 percent of the surface that we’ve seen in high resolution, we’ve only found about 60 craters,” said Catherine Neish, a Cassini radar team associate based at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. “It’s possible that there are many more craters on Titan, but they are not visible from space because they are so eroded. We typically estimate the age of a planet’s surface by counting the number of craters on it (more craters means an older surface). But if processes like stream erosion or drifting sand dunes are filling them in, it’s possible that the surface is much older that it appears.”

“This research is the first quantitative estimate of how much the weather on Titan has modified its surface,” adds Neish.

Titan is the only moon in the solar system with a thick atmosphere, and the only world besides Earth known to have lakes and seas on its surface. However, with a frigid surface temperature of around minus 290 degrees Fahrenheit (94 kelvins), the rain that falls from Titan’s skies is not water but instead liquid methane and ethane, compounds that are normally gases on Earth.

Read more: NASA – Titan Gets a Dune "Makeover".

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